Spencer Barrett

Scientific Publications of

Spencer C.H. Barrett

1975 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1986 | 1987 | 1988 | 1989
1990 | 1991 | 1992 | 1993 | 1994 | 1995 | 1996 | 1997 | 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003
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  1. Pickersgill, B.P., Barrett, S.C.H. & Andrade-Lima, D. (1975). Wild cotton in N.E. Brazil. Biotropica 7: 42–54. (pdf)


  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1977). Tristyly in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Water Hyacinth). Biotropica 9: 230–238. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1977). The breeding system of Pontederia rotundifolia L., a tristylous species. New Phytologist 78: 209–220. (pdf)


  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1978). Floral biology of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth (Pontederiaceae). Aquatic Botany 5: 217–228. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1978). Heterostyly in a tropical weed: the reproductive biology of the Turnera ulmifolia complex (Turneraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 56:1713–1725. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (1978). Pontederiaceae. In: Flowering Plants of the World (Ed.V.H. Heywood), pp. 309–311. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. (1978). Introduction to population ecology by G. Evelyn Hutchinson. Book review. Systematic Botany 3: 349–350. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. & Strother, J.L. (1978). Taxonomy and natural history of Bacopa (Scrophulariaceae) in California. Systematic Botany 3: 408–419. (pdf)


  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1979). The evolutionary breakdown of tristyly in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Water Hyacinth). Evolution 33: 499–510. (pdf)


  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1980). Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth). 1. Fertility of clones from diverse regions. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 101–112. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1980). Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth). 2. Seed production in natural populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 113–124. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (1980). Dimorphic incompatibility and gender in Nymphoides indica (Menyanthaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 58: 1938–1942. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. & Seaman, D.E. (1980). The weed flora of Californian rice fields. Aquatic Botany 9: 351–376. (pdf)
  5. Kenndy, R.A., Barrett, S.C.H., Vander Zee, K. & Rumpho, M.E. (1980). Germination and seedling growth under anaerobic conditions in Echinochloa crus-galli (Barnyard Grass). Plant Cell and Environment 3: 243–249. (pdf)
  6. Barrett, S.C.H. (1980). One hundred families of flowering plants by M. Hickey & C.J. King. Book review. Quarterly Review of Biology 57: 199. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. & Helenurm, K. (1981). Floral sex ratios and life history in Aralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae). Evolution 35: 752–762. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. &Wilson, B.F. (1981). Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (Barnyard Grass). 1. Variation in life history. Canadian Journal of Botany 59: 1844–1860. (pdf)
  3. Thomson, J.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1981). Temporal variation of gender in Aralia hispida (Araliaceae). Evolution 35: 1094–1107. (pdf)
  4. Thomson, J.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1981). Selection for outcrossing, sexual selection and the evolution of dioecy in plants. American Naturalist 118: 443–449. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1982). Genetic variation in weeds. In: Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens (Eds. R.C. Charudattan & H. Lynn Walker), pp. 73–98. John Wiley, New York. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. & Forno, I.W. (1982). Style morph distribution in New World populations of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Water Hyacinth). Aquatic Botany 13: 299–306. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. & Thomson, J.D. (1982). Spatial pattern, floral sex ratios, and fecundity in dioecious Aralia nudicaulis (Araliaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 60: 1662–1670. (pdf)
  4. Price, S.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1982). Tristyly in Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 60: 897–905. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1983). Crop mimicry in weeds. Economic Botany 37: 255–282. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1983). Eichhornia crassipes (Jacinto de Agua, Choreja, Lirio de Agua, Water Hyacinth). In: Costa Rican Natural History (Ed. D.H. Janzen), pp. 236–239. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  3. Barrett, S.C.H., Price, S.D. & Shore, J.S. (1983). Male fertility and anisoplethic population structure in tristylous Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae). Evolution 37: 745–759. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. & Wilson, B.F. (1983). Colonizing ability in the Echinochloa crus-galli complex (Barnyard Grass). 2. Seed biology. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 556–562. (pdf)
  5. Glover, D.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1983). Trimorphic incompatibility in Mexican populations of Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae). New Phytologist 95: 439–455. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1984). Variation in floral sexuality of diclinous Aralia (Araliaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 71: 278–288. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H.(1984). Rice mimicry in Barnyard Grass. Weeds Today 15: 6.
  3. Price, S.D. & Barrett, S.C.H (1984). The function and adaptive significance of tristyly in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 21: 315–329. (pdf)
  4. Richards, J.H. & Barrett, S.C.H.(1984). The developmental basis of tristyly in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). American Journal of Botany 71: 1347–1363. (pdf)
  5. Shore, J.S. & Barrett, S.C.H.(1984). The effect of pollination intensity and incompatible pollen on seed set in Turnera ulmifolia (Turneraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 1298–1303. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1985). Floral trimorphism and monomorphism in continental and island populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Spreng.) Solms. (Pontederiaceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 25: 41–60. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1985). Ecological genetics of breakdown in tristyly. In: Structure and Functioning of Plant Populations 2. Phenotypic and Genotypic Variation in Plant Populations (Eds. J. Haeck & J.W. Woldendorp), pp. 267–275. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (1985). Plant variation and evolution by D. Briggs and S.M. Walters. Book review, Quarterly Review of Biology 60: 505–506. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. (1985). How flowers work: a guide to plant biology by B. Gibbons. Book review, Quarterly Review of Biology 60: 509–510. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. & Anderson, J.M. (1985). Variation in expression of trimorphic incompatibility in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 70: 355–362. (pdf)
  6. Barrett, S.C.H. & Glover, D.E. (1985). On the Darwinian hypothesis of the adaptive significance of tristyly. Evolution 39: 766–774. (pdf)
  7. Barrett, S.C.H. & Shore, J.S. (1985). Dimorphic incompatibility in Turnera hermannioides Camb. (Turneraceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 72: 259–263. (pdf)
  8. Brown, A.H.D., Barrett, S.C.H. & Moran, G. (1985). Mating system estimation in forest trees: models, methods and meanings. In: Population Genetics in Forestry (Ed. H. Gregorius), pp. 32–49. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (pdf)
  9. McIntyre, S. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1985). A comparison of weed communities of rice in Australia and California. In: Are Australian Ecosystems Different? (Eds. J.R. Dodson & M. Westoby), Symposium Proceedings of the Australian Ecological Society 14: 237–250. (pdf)
  10. Shore, J.S. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1985). Morphological differentiation and crossability in the Turnera ulmifolia complex. Systematic Botany 10: 308–321. (pdf)
  11. Shore, J.S. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1985). Genetics of distyly and homostyly in the Turnera ulmifolia complex (Turneraceae). Heredity 55: 167–174. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1986). Genetic differentiation and dispersal in plants by P. Jaquard, G. Heim & J. Antonovics. Book review. Science 232: 1279. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. & Richardson, B.J. (1986). Genetic attributes of invading species. In: Ecology of Biological InvasionsAn Australian Perspective (Eds. R. Groves & J.J. Burdon), pp. 21–33. Australian Academy of Sciences, Canberra. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. & Wolfe, L.M. (1986). Pollen heteromorphism as a tool in studies of the pollination process in Pontederia cordata . In: Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen (Eds. D.L. Mulcahy, G. Bergamini Mulcahy & E. Ottaviano), pp. 435–442. Springer-Verlag, New York. (pdf)
  4. Anderson, J.M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1986). Pollen tube growth in tristylous Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 64: 2602–2607. (pdf)
  5. Eckenwalder, J.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1986). Phylogenetic systematics of Pontederiaceae. Systematic Botany 11: 373–391. (pdf)
  6. Glover, D.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1986). Variation in the mating system of Eichhornia paniculata (Spreng.) Solms. (Pontederiaceae). Evolution 40: 1122–1131. (pdf)
  7. Glover, D.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1986). Stigmatic pollen loads in populations of Pontederia cordata from the southern U.S. American Journal of Botany 73: 1607–1612. (pdf)
  8. Maun, M.A. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1986). The biology of Canadian weeds. 77. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 66: 739–759. (pdf)
  9. Shore, J.S. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1986). Genetic modifications of dimorphic incompatibility in the Turnera ulmifolia L. complex (Turneraceae). Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 28: 796–807. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1987). Plant mimicry. Scientific American 257: 76–83. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1987). Plant breeding systems by A.J. Richards. Book review. Evolution 42: 206–208. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H., Brown, A.H.D. & Shore, J.S. (1987). Disassortative mating in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Heredity 58: 49–55. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. & Helenurm, K. (1987). The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs 1. Breeding systems and pollination. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2036–2046. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. & Shore, J.S. (1987). Variation and evolution of breeding systems in the Turnera ulmifolia complex (Turneraceae). Evolution 41: 340–354. (pdf)
  6. Glover, D.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1987). Genetic variation in continental and island populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Heredity 59: 7–17. (pdf)
  7. Helenurm, K. & Barrett , S.C.H. (1987). The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs 2. Flowering and fruiting phenologies. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2047–2050. (pdf)
  8. Richards, J.H. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1987). Development of tristyly in Pontederia cordata L. 1. Mature floral structure and patterns of relative growth of reproductive organs. American Journal of Botany 74: 1831–1841. (pdf)
  9. Shore, J.S. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1987). Inheritance of floral and isozyme polymorphisms in Turnera ulmifolia L. Journal of Heredity 78: 44–48. (pdf)
  10. Wolfe, L.M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1987). Pollinator foraging behavior and pollen collection on the floral morphs of tristylous Pontederia cordata. Oecologia 74: 347–351. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1988). Evolution of breeding systems in Eichhornia , a review. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 741–760. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1988). The evolution, maintenance and loss of self-incompatibility systems. In: Reproductive Strategies of Plants: Patterns & Strategies (Eds. J. & L. Lovett Doust), pp. 98–124. Oxford University Press, New York. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (1988). Genetics and evolution of agricultural weeds. In: Weed Management in Agroecosystems: Ecological Approaches (Eds. M. Altieri & M.Z. Liebman), pp. 57–75. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. (pdf)
  4. Morgan, M.T. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1988). Historical factors and anisoplethic population structure in tristylous Pontederia cordata L. , a re-assessment. Evolution 42: 496–504. (pdf)
  5. Wolfe, L.M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1988). Temporal changes in the pollinator fauna of tristylous Pontederia cordata, an aquatic plant. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 1421–1424. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1989). Mating system evolution and speciation in heterostylous plants. In: Speciation and its Consequences (Eds. D. Otte & J. Endler), pp.257–283. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1989). The evolutionary breakdown of heterostyly. In: The Evolutionary Ecology of Plants (Eds. Y. Linhart & J. Bock), pp.151–169. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (1989). Waterweed invasions. Scientific American 260: 90–97. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H., Morgan, M.T. & Husband, B.C. (1989). The dissolution of a complex polymorphism: the evolution of self-fertilization in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Evolution 43: 1398–1416. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. & Shore, J.S. (1989). Isozyme variation in colonizing plants. In: Isozymes in Plant Biology (Eds. D. & P. Soltis), pp. 106–126. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon. (pdf)
  6. Morgan, M.T. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1989). Reproductive correlates of mating system evolution in Eichhornia paniculata (Spreng.) Solms (Pontederiaceae). Journal Evolutionary Biology 2: 183–203. (pdf)
  7. Wolfe, L.M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1989). Patterns of pollen removal and deposition in tristylous Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 36: 317–329. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1990). The evolution and adaptive significance of heterostyly. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 144–148. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. & Eckert, C.G. (1990). Variation and evolution of mating systems in seed plants. In: Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants (Ed. S. Kawano), pp. 229–254. Academic Press, Tokyo. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. & Eckert, C.G. (1990). Current issues in plant reproductive ecology. Israel Journal of Botany 39: 5–12. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. & Husband, B.C. (1990).Variation in outcrossing rate in Eichhornia paniculata : the role of demographic and reproductive factors. Plant Species Biology 5: 41–56. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. & Husband, B.C. (1990). Genetics of plant migration and colonization. In: Plant Population Genetics, Breeding and Genetic Resources (Eds. A.H.D. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler & B.S. Weir), pp. 254–277. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. (pdf)
  6. Barrett, S.C.H. & Richards, J.H. (1990). Heterostyly in tropical plants. In: Reproductive Systems and Speciation in Tropical Woody Plants (Eds. G. Prance & G. Gottsberger), Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 55: 35–61. (pdf)
  7. Morgan, M.T. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1990). Outcrossing rates and correlated matings in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Heredity 64: 271–280. (pdf)
  8. Seburn, C.N., Dickinson, T.A. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1990). Floral variation in Eichhornia paniculata (Spreng.) Solms (Pontederiaceae). 1. Instability of stamen position in genotypes from N.E. Brazil. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 3: 103–123. (pdf)
  9. Shore, J.S. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1990). Quantitative genetics of floral characters in homostylous Turnera ulmifolia var. angustifolia (Turneraceae). Heredity 64: 105–112. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. & Charlesworth, D. (1991). Effect of a change in the level of inbreeding on the genetic load. Nature 352: 522–524. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. & Bush, E. (1991). Population processes and the evolution of resistance to gaseous air pollutants in plants. In: Ecological Genetics and Air Pollution (Eds. G. Taylor, L.F. Pitelka & M.T. Clegg), pp. 137–165. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. & Kohn, J. (1991). The genetic and evolutionary consequences of small population size in plant: implications for conservation. In: Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants (Eds. D. Falk & K.E. Holsinger), pp. 3–30. Oxford University Press. (pdf)
  4. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1991). Colonization history and population genetic structure in Eichhornia paniculata Heredity 66: 287–296. (pdf)
  5. Scribailo, R.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1991). Pollen-pistil interactions in tristylous Pontederia sagittata Presl. (Pontederiaceae). 1. Floral heteromorphism and structural features of the pollen tube pathway. American Journal of Botany 78: 1643–1661. (pdf)
  6. Scribailo, R.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1991). Pollen-pistil interactions in tristylous Pontederia sagittata Presl. (Pontederiaceae). 2. Patterns of pollen tube growth. American Journal of Botany 78: 1662–1682. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Editor. Evolution and Function of Heterostyly. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Heterostylous genetic polymorphisms: Model systems for evolutionary analysis. In: Evolution and Function of Heterostyly (Ed. S.C.H. Barrett), pp. 1–29, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Gender variation in Wurmbea dioica (Liliaceae) and the evolution of dioecy. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 5: 423–444. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Genetics of weed invasions. In: Applied Population Biology (Eds. S.K. Jain and L. Botsford), pp 91–120. Kluwer Academic, The Netherlands. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Review of Narcissus by M. Jefferson-Brown. Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 213. (pdf)
  6. Barrett, S.C.H. & Harder, L.D. (1992). Floral variation in Eichhornia paniculata (Spreng.) Solms Pontederiaceae. 2. Effects of development and environment on the formation of selfing flowers. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 5: 83–107. (pdf)
  7. Barrett, S.C.H., Kohn, J.R. & Cruzan, M.B. (1992). Experimental studies of mating-system evolution: the marriage of marker genes and floral biology. In: Ecology and Evolution of Plant Reproduction : New Approaches (Ed. R. Wyatt), pp. 192–230. Chapman & Hall, New York. (pdf)
  8. Eckert C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Stochastic loss of style morphs from populations of tristylous Lythrum salicaria and Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). Evolution 46: 1014–1029. (pdf)
  9. Harder, L.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). The energy cost of bee pollination for Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae). Functional Ecology 6: 1–7. (pdf)
  10. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Effective population size and genetic drift in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Evolution 46: 1875–1890. (pdf)
  11. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Pollinator visitation in populations of tristylous Eichhornia paniculata in northeastern Brazil. Oecologia 89: 365–371. (pdf)
  12. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Genetic drift and the maintenance of the style length polymorphism in tristylous populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Heredity 69: 440–449. (pdf)
  13. Kohn, J.R. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Experimental studies on the functional significance of heterostyly. Evolution 46: 43–55. (pdf)
  14. Kohn, J. R. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). Floral manipulations reveal the cause of male fitness variation in experimental populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Functional Ecology 6: 590–595. (pdf)
  15. Richards, J.H. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1992). The development of heterostyly. In: Evolution and Function of Heterostyly. (Ed. S.C.H. Barrett), pp. 85–127. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1993). The evolutionary biology of tristyly. In: Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology (Eds. D. Futuyma & J. Antonovics), Vol. 9: pp. 283–326. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H., Eckert, C.G. & Husband, B.C. (1993). Evolutionary processes in aquatic plant populations. Aquatic Botany 44: 105–145. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H., Husband, B.C. & Cole, W.W. (1993). Variation in outcrossing rates in Eichhornia paniculata : temporal changes in populations of contrasting morph structure. Plant Species Biology 8: 141–148. (pdf)
  4. Bush, E., & Barrett, S.C.H. (1993). Genetics of mine invasions by Deschampsia cespitosa (Poaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 71: 1336–1348. (pdf)
  5. Chase, M.W., Soltis, D.E., Olmstead, R.G., Morgan, D., Les, D.H., Mishler, B.D., Duvall, M.R., Price, R.A., Hills, H.G., Qiu, Y.-L., Kron, K. A., Rettig, J.H., Conti, E., Palmer, J.D., Manhart, J.R., Sytsma, K.J., Michaels, H.J., Kress, W.J., Clark, W.D., Hedren, M., Gaut, B.S., Jansen, R.K., Kim, K.-J., Wimpee, C.F., Smith, J.F., Furnier, G.R., Strauss, S.H., Xiang, Q.-Y., Plunkett, G.M., Soltis, P.S., Swensen, S. M., Williams, S.E., Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J., Eguiarte, L.E., Golenburg, E., Learn Jr., G.H., Graham, S.W., Barrett, S.C.H., Dayanandan, S. & Albert, V.A. (1993). Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 528–580. (pdf)
  6. Cruzan, M.B. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1993). Contribution of cryptic incompatibility to the mating system of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Evolution 47: 925–934. (pdf)
  7. Eckert, C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1993). Clonal reproduction and patterns of genotypic diversity in Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). American Jourrnal of Botany 80: 1175–1182. (pdf)
  8. Eckert, C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1993). The inheritance of tristyly in Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). Heredity 71: 473–480. (pdf)
  9. Harder, L.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1993). Pollen removal from tristylous Pontederia cordata: effects of anther position and pollinator specialization. Ecology 74: 1059–1072. (pdf)
  10. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1993). Multiple origins of self-fertilization in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): inferences from style morph and isozyme variation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 6: 591–608. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Review of Genes in Ecology. Edited by R.J. Berry, T.J. Crawford, & G.M. Hewitt. Quarterly Review of Biology 69: 291–292. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Review of The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Edited by W. Shields & N.W. Thornhill. Quarterly Review of Biology 69: 400. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. & Cruzan, M.B. (1994). Incompatibility in heterostylous plants. In: Genetic Control of Self-Incompatibility & Reproductive Development (Eds. E.G. Williams, R.B. Knox & A.E. Clarke), pp. 189–219. Kluwer Academic Publ., The Netherlands. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H., Harder, L.D. & Cole, W.W. (1994). Effects of flower number and position on self-fertilization in experimental populations of Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Functional Ecology 8: 526–535. (pdf)
  5. Eckert, C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Tristyly, self-compatibility and floral variation in Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 53: 1–30. (pdf)
  6. Eckert, C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Post-pollination mechanisms and the maintenance of outcrossing in self-compatible, tristylous, Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae). Heredity 72: 396–411. (pdf)
  7. Eckert, C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Inbreeding depression in partially self-fertilizing Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae): population-genetic and experimental analysis. Evolution 48: 952–964. (pdf)
  8. Fenster, C.B. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Inheritance of mating-system modifier genes in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). Heredity 72: 433–445. (pdf)
  9. Kohn, J.R. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Pollen discounting and the spread of a selfing variant in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata, evidence from experimental populations. Evolution 48: 1576–1594. (pdf)
  10. Scribailo, R.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1994). Effects of prior self-pollination on outcrossed seed set in tristylous Pontederia sagittata (Pontederiaceae). Sexual Plant Reproduction 7: 273–281. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1995). Mating-system evolution in flowering plants: micro- and macroevolutionary approaches. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 44: 385–402. (pdf)
  2. Eckert, C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1995). Style morph ratios in tristylous Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae): selection vs. historical contingency. Ecology 76: 1051–1066. (pdf)
  3. Fenster, C.B., Diggle, P.K., Barrett, S.C.H. & Ritland, K. (1995). The genetics of floral development differentiating two species of Mimulus (Scrophulariaceae). Heredity 74: 258–266. (pdf)
  4. Graham, S.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1995). Phylogenetic systematics of Pontederiales: implications for breeding-system evolution. In: Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution (Eds. P.J. Rudall, P.J. Cribb, D.F. Cutler & C.J. Humphries), pp. 415–441. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. (pdf)
  5. Harder, L.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1995). Mating cost of large floral displays in hermaphrodite plants. Nature 373: 512–515. (pdf)
  6. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1995). Estimates of gene flow in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): effects of range substructure. Heredity 75: 549–560. (pdf)
  7. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1995). Estimating effective population size: a reply to Nunney. Evolution 49: 392–394. (pdf)
  8. Manicacci, D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1995). Stamen elongation, pollen size and siring ability in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae). American Journal of Botany 82: 1381–1389. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). The reproductive biology and genetics of island plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Ser. B. 351: 725–733. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. & Harder, L.D. (1996). Ecology and evolution of plant mating. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11: 73–79. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H., Harder, L.D. & Worley, A. (1996). The comparative biology of pollination and mating in flowering plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Ser. B. 351: 1271–1280. (pdfExcel version of data set
  4. Barrett, S.C.H., Lloyd, D.G & Arroyo, J. (1996). Stylar polymorphisms and the evolution of heterostyly. In: Floral Biology: Studies on Floral Evolution in Animal-Pollinated Plants (Eds. D.G. Lloyd & S.C.H. Barrett) pp. 339–376. Chapman & Hall, New York. (pdf)
  5. Cruzan, M.B. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Post-pollination mechanisms influencing mating patterns and fecundity: an example from Eichhornia paniculata American Naturalist 147: 576–598. (pdf)
  6. Eckert, C.G., Manicacci, D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Genetic drift and founder effect in native versus introduced populations of an invading plant, Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae). Evolution 50: 1512–1519. (pdf)
  7. Eckert, C.G., Manicacci, D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Frequency-dependent selection on morph ratios in tristylous Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae). Heredity 77: 581–588. (pdf)
  8. Harder, L.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Pollen dispersal and mating patterns in animal-pollinated plants. In: Floral Biology: Studies on Floral Evolution in Animal-Pollinated Plants (Eds. D.G. Lloyd & S.C.H. Barrett) pp. 140–190. Chapman & Hall, New York. (pdf)
  9. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). A metapopulation perspective in plant population biology. Journal of Ecology 84: 461–469. (pdf)
  10. Kohn, J.R., Graham, S.W., Morton, B., Doyle, J.J., & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Reconstruction of the evolution of reproductive characters in Pontederiaceae using phylogenetic evidence from chloroplast DNA restriction-site variation. Evolution 50: 1454–1469. (pdf)
  11. Lloyd, D.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Editors. Floral Biology: Studies on Floral Evolution in Animal-Pollinated Plants. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  12. Manicacci, D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Fertility differences among floral morphs following selfing in tristylous Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): inbreeding depression or partial incompatibility? American Journal of Botany 83: 594–603. (pdf)
  13. Barrett, S.C.H. (1996). Obituary – Professor Abilio Fernandes. Daffodil & Tulip Year Book 1996–7, pp. 53–56, Royal Horticultural Society, London.



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. & Husband, B.C. (1997). Ecology and genetics of ephemeral plant populations: Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) in N.E. Brazil. Journal of Heredity 88: 277–284. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H., Cole, W.W., Arroyo, J., Cruzan, M.B., & Lloyd, D.G. (1997). Sexual polymorphisms in Narcissus triandrus : is this species tristylous ? Heredity 78: 135–145. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. & Graham,S.W. (1997). Adaptive radiation in the aquatic plant family Pontederiaceae: insights from phylogenetic analysis. In Molecular Evolution and Adaptive Radiation (Eds. T.J. Givnish & K. Sytsma), pp.225–258.Cambridge University Press. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (1998). The evolution of mating strategies in flowering plants. Trends in Plant Science 3: 335–341. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H., Cole, W. & Harder, L.D. (1998). Experimental studies on the effects of floral design and display on plant mating. In: Reproductive Biology in Systematics, Conservation & Economic Botany. (Eds. S.J. Owen & P.J. Rudell), pp. 1–13. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (1998). Book Review of Plant Breeding Systems 2nd Edition by A.J. Richards. Heredity 80: 260–262. (pdf)
  4. Larson, B.M.H. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1998). Reproductive biology of island and mainland populations of Primula mistassinica (Primulaceae) on Lake Huron shorelines. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 1819–1827. (pdf)
  5. Pannel, J.R. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1998). Baker’s Law revisited: reproductive assurance in a metapopulation. Evolution 52: 657–668. (pdf)
  6. Graham, S.W., Kohn, J.R., B.R. Morton, J.E. Eckenwalder & Barrett, S.C.H. (1998). Phylogenetic congruence and discordance among one morphological and three molecular data sets from Pontederiaceae. Systematic Biology 47:545–567. (pdf)
  7. Husband, B.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1999). Spatial and temporal variation in population size of Eichhornia paniculata in ephemeral habitats: implications for metapopulation dynamics. Journal of Ecology 86: 1021–1031. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H., Case, A.L. & Peters, G.B. (1999). Gender modification and resource allocation in subdioecious Wurmbea dioica (Colchicaceae). Journal of Ecology 87: 123–127. (pdf )
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. & Pannell, J.R. (1999). Metapopulation dynamics and mating-system evolution in plants. In: Molecular Systematics & Plant Evolution (Eds. P. Hollingsworth, R. Bateman & R. Gornall). Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 74–100. (pdf)
  3. Larson, B.M.H. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1999). The ecology of pollen limitation in buzz-pollinated Rhexia virginica (Melastomataceae). Journal of Ecology 87: 371–381. (pdf)
  4. Larson, B.M.H. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1999). The pollination ecology of buzz-pollinated Rhexia virginica (Melastomataceae). American Journal of Botany 86: 502–511. (pdf)
  5. Sage, T.L., Strumas, F., Cole, W.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1999). Differential ovule development following self- and cross-pollination: The basis of self-sterility in Narcissus triandrus (Amaryllidaceae). American Journal of Botany 86:855–970. (pdf)
  6. Wright, S.I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (1999). Size-dependent gender modification in an hermaphroditic perennial herb. Proceedings of the Royal Society Ser. B. 266: 225–232. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). Microevolutionary influences of global change on plant invasions. In: The Impact of Global Change on Invasive Species. (Eds. H.A. Mooney & R.K. Hobbs), pp.115–139. Island Press, Covelo, California (pdf)
  2. Larson, B.M.H. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). A comparative analysis of pollen limitation in flowering plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 503–520. (pdf)
  3. Bianchi, M., Vesprini, J. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). Trimorphic incompatibility in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae). Sexual Plant Reproduction 12: 203–208. (pdf)
  4. Worley, A.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). Evolution of floral display in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): Direct and correlated responses to selection on flower size and number. Evolution 54: 1533–1545. (pdf)
  5. Worley, A.C., Baker, A.M., Thompson, J.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). Floral display in Narcissus, variation in flower size and number at the species, population, and individual levels. International Journal of Plant Sciences 161: 69–79. (pdf)
  6. Harder, L.D., Barrett, S.C.H., & Cole, W. (2000). The mating consequences of sexual segregation within inflorescences of flowering plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society Ser. B. 267: 315–320. (pdf)
  7. Baker, A.M., Barrett, S.C.H. & Thompson, J.D. (2000). Variation of pollen limitation in the early-flowering Meditteranean geophyte Narcissus assoanus (Amaryllidaceae). Oecologia 124: 529–535. (pdf)
  8. Baker, A.M.,Thompson, J.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). Evolution and maintenance of stigma-height dimorphism in Narcissus. I. Floral variation and style-morph ratios. Heredity 84: 502–513. (pdf)
  9. Baker, A.M., J.D. Thompson & S.C.H. Barrett (2000). Evolution and maintenance of stigma-height dimorphism in Narcissus. II. Fitness comparisons between style morphs. Heredity 84: 514–524. (pdf)
  10. Barrett, S.C.H, Jesson, L.K. & Baker, A.M. (2000). The evolution of stylar polymorphisms in plants. Annals of Botany 85 SUPPL. A, 253–265. (pdf)
  11. Barrett, S.C.H., Wilken, D.H. & Cole, W.W. (2000). Heterostyly in the Lamiaceae: the case of Salvia brandegeei. Plant Systematics & Evolution 223: 211–219. (pdf)
  12. Arroyo, J. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). Discovery of distyly in Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae). American Journal of Botany 87: 748–75. (pdf)
  13. Barrett, S.C.H., Baker, A.M. & Jesson, L.K. (2000). Mating strategies in monocotyledons. In:Systematics & Evolution of Monocots. (Eds. K.L. Wilson & D. Morrison), pp. 256–267. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
  14. Barrett, S.C.H. (2000). Advanced Plant Sex. Review of Gender & Sexual Dimorphism in Flowering Plants by M.A. Geber, T.E. Dawson & L.F. Delph. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15: 78–79. (pdf)



  1. Sarkissian, T.S., Barrett, S.C.H., & Harder, L.D. (2001). Gender variation in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae): Is size all that matters? Ecology 82: 36–373. (pdf)
  2. Pannell, J.P & Barrett, S.C.H. (2001). Effects of population size and metapopulation dynamics on a mating-system polymorphism. Theoretical Population Biology 59: 145–155. (pdf)
  3. Case, A.L. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2001). Ecological differentiation of combined and separate sexes of Wurmbea dioica (Colchicaceae). Ecology 82:2601–2616. (pdf)
  4. Worley, A.C. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2001). Evolution of floral display in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): Genetic correlations between flower size and number. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14: 469–481. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. (2001). The Life and Times of Plant Species: From Metapopulations to Mutational Meltdown. Review of The Origin, Expansion, and Demise of Plant Species by D.A. Levin, Book Review. Evolution 55: 641–646. (pdf)
  6. Barrett, S.C.H., Dorken, M.E., and Case, A. L. (2001). A geographical context for the evolution of plant reproductive systems. In: Intergrating Ecological and Evolutionary Processes in a Spatial Context. (Eds. J. Silvertown & J. Antonovics). pp. 341–364. Blackwell, Oxford. UK.
  7. Sage, T. L., Griffin, S.R., Pontieri, V., Drobac, P., Cole, W.W., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2001). Stigmatic self-incompatibility and mating patterns in Trillium grandiflorum and Trillium erectum (Melanthiaceae). Annals of Botany 88: 829–841. (pdf)
  8. Barrett, S.C.H. (2001). The Baker and Stebbins era comes to a close. Evolution 55: 2371–2374. (pdf)



  1. Dorken, M.E., Friedman, J. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). The evolution and maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae). Evolution 56: 31–41. (pdf)
  2. Jesson, L.K. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). Enantiostyly in Wachendorfia (Haemodoraceae): the influence of reproductive system on the maintenance of the polymorphism. American Journal of Botany 89: 253–262. (pdf)
  3. Sleeman, J.D., Dudley, S.A., Pannell, J.R.& Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). Responses of carbon aquisition traits to irradiance and light quality in Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiacae): evidence of weak integration of plastic responses. American Journal of Botany 89: 1388–1400. (pdf)
  4. Arroyo, J., Barrett, S.C.H., Hidalgo, R. & Cole, W.W. (2002). Evolutionary maintenance of stigma-height dimorphism in Narcissus papyraceus(Amaryllidaceae). American Journal of Botany 89: 1242–1249. (pdf)
  5. Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). Sexual interference of the floral kind. Heredity 88: 154–159. (pdf)
  6. Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). The evolution of plant sexual diversity. Nature Reviews Genetics 3: 274–284. (pdf)
  7. Jesson, L.K. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). Solving the puzzle of mirror image flowers. Nature 417: 407. (pdf)
  8. Griffin, S.R. & Barrett S.C.H. (2002). Factors affecting low seed-ovule ratios in a spring woodland herb, Trillium grandiflorum (Melanthiaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 163: 581–590. (pdf)
  9. Graham, S.W., Olmstead, R.G., & Barrett, S. C. H. (2002). Rooting phylogenetic trees with distant outgroups: A case study from the Commelinoid Monocots Molecular Biology and Evolution 19: 1769–1781. (pdf)
  10. Jesson, L.K. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). The genetics of mirror-image flowers. Proceedings of the Royal Society Ser. B.269: 1835–1839. (pdf)
  11. Crnokrak, P. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2002). Perspective: Purging the genetic load: A review of the experimental evidence. Evolution56: 2347–2358. (pdf)



  1. Worely, A.C., Houle, D., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2003). Consequences of hierarchical allocation for the evolution of life-history traits. American Naturalist 161: 153–167. (pdf)
  2. Thompson, J.D., Barrett, S.C.H. & Baker, A.M. (2003). Frequency-dependent variation in reproductive success in Narcissus: implications for the maintenance of stigma-height dimorphism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Ser. B.  270: 949–953. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (2003) Mating strategies in flowering plants: the outcrossing-selfing paradigm and beyond. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Ser. B 358: 991–1004. (pdf)
  4. Dorken, M.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2003). Life-history differentiation and the maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae). Evolution 57: 1973–1988. (pdf)
  5. Vamosi, J.C., Otto, S., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2003). Phylogenetic analysis of the ecological correlates of dioecy in angiosperms. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16: 1006–1018. (pdf)
  6. Jesson, L.K. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2003). The comparative biology of mirror-image flowers. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164 (5 Suppl.): S237–249. (pdf)
  7. Jesson, L.K., Barrett, S.C.H. & Day, T. (2003). A theoretical investigation of the evolution and maintenance of mirror-image flowers. American Naturalist161: 916–930. (pdf)
  8. Jesson, L.K., Kang, J., Wagner, S.L., Barrett, S.C.H. & Dengler, N.G. (2003). The developmental basis of enantiostyly. American Journal of Botany 90: 183–195. (pdf)
  9. Dorken, M.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2003). Gender plasticity in Sagittaria sagittifolia (Alismataceae), a monoecious species. Plant Systematics and Evolution 237: 99–106. (pdf)



  1. Dorken, M.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Phenotypic plasticity of vegetative and reproductive traits in monoecious and dioecious populations of Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae): a clonal aquatic plant. Journal of Ecology 92: 32–44. (pdf)
  2. Dorken, M.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Sex determination and the evolution of dioecy from monoecy in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271: 213–219. (pdf)
  3. Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Pontederiaceae (Water Hyacinth family). In: Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. (Eds. N. Smith, S.A. Mori, A. Henderson, D. W. Stevenson & S.V. Heald, pp. 474–476. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Flower diversity and plant mating strategies, pp. 110–113. In:McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology. McGraw Hill Inc, New York. (pdf)
  5. Griffin, S.R. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Post-glacial history of Trillium grandiflorum (Melanthiaceae) in eastern North America: inferences from phylogeography. American Journal of Botany 91: 465–473. (pdf)
  6. Griffin, S.R. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Genetic variation in Trillium erectum (Melanthiaceae), a widespread forest herb in eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 316–321. (pdf)
  7. Case, A.L. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Environmental stress and the evolution of dioecy: Wurmbea dioica (Colchicaceae) in Western Australia. Evolutionary Ecology 18: 145–164. (pdf)
  8. Case, A.L. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Floral biology of gender monomorphism and dimorphism in Wurmbea dioica (Colchicaceae) in Western Australia. International Journal of Plant Sciences 165: 289–301.(pdf)
  9. Barrett, S.C.H., Cole, W.W. & Herrera, C.M. (2004). Mating patterns and genetic diversity in the wild daffodil Narcissus longispathus (Amaryllidaceae). Heredity 92: 459–465. (pdf)
  10. Barrett, S.C.H., Harder, L.D. & Cole, W.W. (2004). Correlated evolution of floral morphology and mating-type frequencies in a sexually polymorphic plant. Evolution 58: 964–975. (pdf)
  11. Graham, S.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolution of stylar polymorphisms in Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae). American Journal of Botany 91: 1007–1021. (pdf)
  12. Cesaro, A.C., Barrett, S.C.H., Maurice, S., Vassiere, B. & Thompson, J.D. (2004). An experimental evaluation of self-interference in Narcissus assoanus: functional and evolutionary implications. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 1367–1376. (early online , pdf)
  13. Dorken, M.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2004). Chloroplast haplotype variation among monoecious and dioecious populations of Sagittaria latifolia(Alismataceae) in eastern North America. Molecular Ecology 13: 2699–2707. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. & Harder, L.D. (2005). The evolution of polymorphic sexual systems in daffodils (Narcissus). New Phytologist 165: 45–53. (pdf)
  2. Wang, Y., Wang, Q-F., Guo, Y-H. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2005). Reproductive consequences of interactions between clonal growth and sexual reproduction in Nymphoides peltata: a distylous aquatic plant. New Phytologist 165: 329–336. (pdf)
  3. Zhang, L., Barrett, S.C.H., Gao, J-Y., Chen, J., Cole, W.W., Liu, Y., Bai, Z-L. & Li, Q-J. (2005). Predicting mating patterns from pollination syndromes: the case of “sapromyiophily” in Tacca chantrieri (Taccaceae). American Journal of Botany 92: 517–524. (pdf)
  4. Anderson, B., Cole, W.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2005). Specialized bird perch aids cross-pollination. Nature 435: 41–42. (pdf)
  5. Medrano, M., Herrera, C.M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2005). Herkogamy and mating patterns in the self-compatible daffodil Narcissus longispathusAnnals of Botany 95: 1105–1111. (pdf)
  6. Jesson, L.K., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2005). Experimental tests of the function of mirror-image flowers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 85: 167–179 (pdf)
  7. Stehlik, I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2005). Mechanisms governing sex ratio variation in dioecious Rumex nivalisEvolution 59: 814–825. (pdf)



  1. Stehlik, I., Casperson, J.P. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2006). Spatial ecology of mating success in a sexually polymorphic plant. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 273:, 387–394. (pdf)
  2. Hodgins, K. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2006). Mating patterns and demography in the tristylous daffodil. Heredity 96: 262–270. (pdf)
  3. Stehlik, I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2006). Pollination intensity influences sex ratios in dioecious Rumex nivalis, a wind-pollinated plant. Evolution 60: 1207–1214. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. & Case, A.C. (2006). The ecology and evolution of gender strategies in plants: the case of Australian Wurmbea (Colchicaceae).The Turner Review Australian Journal of Botany 54: 417–433. (pdf)
  5. Hodgins, K. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2006). Female reproductive success and the evolution of mating type frequencies in tristylous populations. New Phytologist 171: 569–580. (pdf)
  6. Vamosi, J.C. , Vamosi, S.M. & . Barrett, S.C.H (2006). Sex in advertising: dioecy alters the net benefits of attractiveness in Sagittaria latifolia(Alismataceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 273: 2401–2407. (pdf)
  7. Harder, L.D & Barrett, S.C.H. (2006). Editors. Ecology & Evolution of Flowers (Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. For more Information
  8. Barrett, S.C.H. & Hodgins, K.A. (2006). Floral design and the evolution of asymmetrical mating. In: The Ecology and Evolution of Flowers. (Eds. L.D. Harder & S.C.H. Barrett). Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. pp. 239–255.
  9. Barrett, S.C.H. & Harder, L.D. (2006). David G. Lloyd and the evolution of floral biology: from natural history to strategic analysis. In: The Ecology and Evolution of Flowers. (Eds. L.D. Harder & S.C.H. Barrett). Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 1–21.



  1. Stehlik, I., Kron P., Barrett, S.C.H. & Husband, B.C. (2007). Sexing pollen reveals female bias in a dioecious plant. New Phytologist 175: 185–194. (pdf)
  2. Hodgins, K.A., Stehlik, I. , Wang, P. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2007). The development of eight microsatellite loci in the wild daffodil Narcissus triandrus(Amaryllidaceae). Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 510–512. (pdf)
  3. Hodgins, K.A. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2007). Population structure and genetic diversity in tristylous Narcissus triandrus: insights from microsatellite and chloroplast DNA variation. Molecular Ecology 16: 2317–2332. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. & Charlesworth D. (2007). David Graham Lloyd 30 June 1937 – 30 May 2006. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 53: 203–221. (pdf)



  1. Montague, J.L., Barrett, S.C.H., Eckert, C.G. (2008). Restablishment of clinal variation in flowering time among introduced populations of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria, Lythraceae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21: 234–245. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H., Colautti, R.I. & Eckert, C.G. (2008). Reproductive systems and evolution during biological invasion. Molecular Ecology 17: 373–383. (pdf)
  3. Hodgins, K.A. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2008). Asymmetrical mating patterns and the evolution of biased morph ratios in a tristylous daffodil. Genetics Research 90: 3–15. (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. (2008). Major evolutionary transitions in flowering plant reproduction: an overview. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 1–5. (pdf)
  5. Friedman, J. & Barrett S.C.H. (2008). A phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of wind pollination in the angiosperms. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169:49–58. (pdf)
  6. Wright, S.I., Ness, R.W., Foxe, J.P. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2008). Genomic consequences of outcrossing and selfing in plants. International Journal of Plant Sciences 169:105–118. (pdf)
  7. Case, A.C., Graham, S.W., MacFarlane, T.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2008). A phylogenetic study of evolutionary transitions in sexual systems in Australian Wurmbea (Colchicaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 169: 141–156. (pdf)
  8. Hodgins, K.A. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2008). Geographical variation and style-morph ratios in a sexually polymorphic daffodil. American Journal of Botany95: 185–195. (pdf)
  9. Hodgins, K.A. & Barrett S.C.H. (2008). Natural selection on floral traits through male and female function in wild populations of the heterostylous daffodil Narcissus triandrusEvolution 62: 1751– 1763. (pdf)
  10. Friedman J. & Barrett S.C.H. (2008). High outcrossing in the annual colonizing species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae). Annals of Botany 101: 1303–1309. (pdf)
  11. Glaettli, M. & Barrett S.C.H. (2008). Pollinator responses to variation in floral display and flower size in dioecious Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae). New Phytologist 179: 1193–1201. (pdf)
  12. Fazekas, A.J., Burgess, K.S., Kesanakurti, P.R., Graham, S.W., Newmaster, S.G., Husband, B.C., Percy, D.M., Hajibabaei, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2008). Multiple multilocus DNA barcodes from the plastid genome discriminate plant species equally well. PLoS ONE 3: issue 7, e2802. (pdf)
  13. Stehlik, I., Friedman, J. & Barrett S.C.H. (2008). Environmental influence on primary sex ratio in a dioecious plant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 10852–10857. (pdf)
  14. Barrett S.C.H. (ed.) (2008). Major Evolutionary Transitions in Flowering Plant Reproduction. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
  15. Barrett. S.C.H. & Shore J.S. (2008). New insights on heterostyly: Comparative biology, ecology and genetics. In: Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: Evolution, Diversity and Mechanisms. (Ed. V. Franklin-Tong). Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 3–32. (pdf)



  1. Friedman J. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2009). Wind of change: new insights on the ecology and evolution of pollination and mating in wind-pollinated plants. Annals of Botany 103: 1515–1527. (pdf)
  2. Fazekas, A.J., Kesanakurti, P.R., Burgess K.S., Percy, D.M., Graham S.W., Barrett, S.C.H., Newmaster, S.G., Hajibabaei M. & Husband, B.C. (2009). Are plant species inherently harder to discriminate than animal species using DNA barcoding markers. Molecular Ecology Resources 9 (Supplement 1): 130–139. (pdf)
  3. Vallejo-Marín, M., Manson, M., Thomson J.D. & Barrett S.C.H. (2009). Division of labour within flowers: heteranthery, a floral strategy to reconcile contrasting pollen fates. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 828–839. (pdf)
  4. Vallejo-Marín, M. & Barrett S.C.H. (2009). Modification of flower architecture during early stages in the evolution of self-fertilization. Annals of Botany103: 951–962. (pdf)
  5. Friedman, J. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2009). The consequences of monoecy and protogyny for mating in wind-pollinated CarexNew Phytologist 181: 489–497. (pdf)
  6. Yakimowski, S.B., Rymer, P.D., Stone, H., Barrett, S.C.H.& Dorken, M.E. (2009). Isolation and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers from Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae). Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 579–581. (pdf)
  7. Colautti R.I., J.L. Maron & S.C.H. Barrett. (2009). Common garden comparisons of native and introduced plant populations: latitudinal clines can obscure evolutionary inferences. Evolutionary Applications 2: 187–199. (pdf) (Selected by Faculty of 1000)
  8. Barrett. S.C.H., Ness, R.W. & Vallejo-Marín, M. (2009). Evolutionary pathways to self-fertilization in a tristylous plant species. New Phytologist 183: 546–556. (pdf)
  9. CBOL Plant Working Group: Hollingsworth P.M, Forrest L.L., Spouge J.L., Hajibabaei M., Ratnasingham S., van der Bank M., Chase M.W., Cowan R.S., Erickson D.L., Fazekas A.J., Graham S.W., James K.E., Kim K-J., Kress W.J., Schneider H, van AlphenStahl J., Barrett S.C.H., van den Berg C., Bogarin D, Burgess K.S., Cameron K.M., Carine M., Chacón J., Clark A., Clarkson J.J., Conrad F., Devey D.S., Ford C.S., Hedderson T.A.J., Hollingsworth M.L., Husband B.C., Kelly L.J., Kesanakurti P.R., Kim J.S., Kim Y-D., Lahaye R., Lee H-L., Long D.G., Madriñán S., Maurin O., Meusnier I., Newmaster S.G., Park C-W., Percy D.M., Petersen G., Richardson J.E., Salazar G.A., Savolainen V., Seberg O., Wilkinson M.J., Yi D-K., & Little D.P. (2009). A DNA barcode for land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106 : 12794–12797. (pdf)



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Understanding plant reproductive diversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Ser. B. 365: 99–109. (pdf)
  2. Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Darwin’s legacy: the forms, function and sexual diversity of flowers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Ser. B. 365: 351–368. (pdf)
  3. Ness, R.W., Wright, S.I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Mating-system variation, demographic history and patterns of nucleotide diversity in the tristylous plant Eichhornia paniculataGenetics 184: 381–392. (pdf)
  4. Colautti, R.I., White, N.A. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Variation of self-incompatibility within invasive populations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicariaL.) from eastern North America. International Journal of Plant Sciences 171: 158–166 (pdf)
  5. Colautti, R.I., Eckert, C.G. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Evolutionary constraints on adaptive evolution during range expansion in an invasive plant. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. (pdf) (Selected by Faculty of 1000)
  6. Siol, M., Wright, S.I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). The population genomics of plant adaptation. New Phytologist 188: 313–332. (pdf)
  7. Barrett, S.C.H., Yakimowski, S.B., Field, D.L., & Pickup M. (2010). Ecological genetics of sex ratios in plant populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Ser. B. 365: 2549–2557. (pdf)
  8. Zhang, Y.-Y., Zhang, D.-Y. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a clonal aquatic plant. Molecular Ecology 19: 1774–1786. (pdf)
  9. Li, A-M., Wu, X-Q., Zhang, D-X. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Cryptic dioecy in Mussaenda pubescens (Rubiaceae): a species with stigma-height dimorphism. Annals of Botany 106: 521–531. (pdf)
  10. Vallejo-Marín, M., Da Silva, E.M., Sargent, R.D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Trait correlates and function of heteranthery. New Phytologist 188: 418–425. (pdf)
  11. Colautti, R.I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). Natural selection and genetic constraints on flowering phenology in an invasive plant. International Journal of Plant Sciences 171: 960–971. (pdf)
  12. Wright, S.I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). The long-term benefits of self-rejection. Science 330: 459–460. (pdf)
  13. Vallejo-Marín, M., Dorken, M.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2010). The ecological and evolutionary consequences of clonality for plant mating. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 41: 193–213.



  1. Barrett, S.C.H. (2011). Why reproductive systems matter for the invasion biology of plants. In Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology: The Legacy of Charles Elton. (Ed. D. M. Richardson) Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK Chapter 15: 195–210. (pdf)
  2. Friedman, J. & Barrett S.C.H. (2011). The evolution of ovule number and flower size in wind-pollinated plants. American Naturalist 177: 246–257. (pdf)
  3. Kesanakurti, P.R., Fazekas, A.J., Burgess, K.S., Percy, D.M., Newmaster, S.G., Graham, S.W., Barrett, S.C.H. & Husband, B.C. (2011). Spatial patterns of plant diversity below ground as revealed by DNA barcoding. Molecular Ecology 20: 1289–1302. (pdf)
  4. Burgess, K.S., Fazekas, A.J., Kesanakurti, P.R., Graham, S.W., Husband, B.C., Newmaster, S.G., Percy, D.M., Hajibabaei, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2011). Discriminating plant species in a local temperate flora using the rbcL+matK DNA barcode. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2: 333–340. early online(pdf)
  5. Yakimowski, S.B, Glaettli, M. & S.C.H. Barrett (2011). Floral dimorphism in plant populations with combined versus separate sexes. Annals of Botany108: 765–776. doi:10.1093/aob/mcr025 (pdf)
  6. Friedman J. & Barrett S.C.H. (2011). Genetic and environmental control of temporal and size-dependent sex allocation in a wind-pollinated plant. Evolution 65: 2061–2074. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01284.x (pdf)
  7. Colautti, R.I. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2011). Population divergence along lines of genetic variance and covariance in the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria in eastern North America. Evolution 65: 2514–2529. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01313.x (pdf)
  8. Ness, R.W., Graham, S.W. & S.C.H. Barrett (2011). Reconciling gene and genome duplication events: using multiple nuclear gene families to infer the phylogeny of the aquatic plant family Pontederiaceae. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 3009–3018. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr119 (pdf)
  9. Ness, R.W., Siol, M. & S.C.H. Barrett (2011). De novo sequence assembly and characterization of the floral transcriptome of cross- and self-fertilizing plants. BMC Genomics 2011, 12:298 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-298 (pdf)
  10. Darling, E.S., Barrett, S.C.H. (2011). Sit-and-wait pollination in the spring flowering woodland plant, Trillium grandiflorum. Journal of Pollination Ecology 5: 81–85. (pdf)



  1. Pickup, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2012). Reversal of height dimorphism promotes pollen and seed dispersal in a wind-pollinated dioecious plant. Biology Letters8: 245–248. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0950 (pdf)
  2. De Waal, C., Anderson, B. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2012). The natural history of pollination and mating in bird-pollinated Babiana (Iridaceae). Annals of Botany 109: 667–679. doi:10.1093/aob/mcr172 (pdf)
  3. Field, D.L., Pickup, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2012). The influence of pollination intensity on fertilization success, progeny sex ratio, and fitness in a wind-pollinated, dioecious plant. International Journal of Plant Sciences 173: 184–191. doi:10.1086/663164 (pdf)
  4. De Waal, C., Barrett, S.C.H. & Anderson, B. (2012). The effect of mammalian herbivory on inflorescence architecture in ornithophilous Babiana(Iridaceae): Implications for the evolution of a bird perch. American Journal of Botany 99: 1096–1103. doi:10.3732/ajb.1100295 (pdf) (pdf with cover image)
  5. Field, D.L. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2012). Disassortative mating and the maintenance of sexual polymorphism in painted maple. Molecular Ecology 21: 3640–3643. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05643.x (pdf)
  6. Zhou, W., Barrett, S.C.H., Wang, H. and Li, D.-Z. (2012). Loss of floral polymorphism in heterostylous Luculia pinceana (Rubiaceae): a molecular phylogeographic perspective. Molecular Ecology 21: 4631–4645. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05707.x (pdf)
  7. Fan, X.-L., Barrett, S.C.H., Lin, H., Chen, L.-L., Zhou, X. & Gao, J.-Y. (2012). Rain pollination provides reproductive assurance in a deceptive orchid. Annals of Botany 110: 953–958. doi:10.1093/aob/mcs165 (pdf)
  8. Barrett, S.C.H. & Arroyo, M.T.K. (2012). Variation in floral morph ratios in tristylous Oxalis squamata (Oxalidaceae): an Andean alpine endemic. Botany90: 1180–1185. doi:10.1139/b2012-075 (pdf)
  9. Ness, R.W., Siol, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2012). Genomic consequences of transitions from cross- to self-fertilization on the efficacy of selection in three independently derived selfing plants. BMC Genomics 2012, 13:611 doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-611 (pdf)



  1. Field, D.L., Pickup, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). Comparative analyses of sex-ratio variation in dioecious flowering plants. Evolution 67: 661–672. doi:10.1111/evo.12001 (pdf)
  2. Hulme, P.E. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). Integrating trait‐ and niche‐based approaches to assess contemporary evolution in alien plant species. Journal of Ecology 101:68–77. doi:10.1111/1365-2745.12009 (pdf)
  3. Puentes, A., Cole, W.W. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). Trimorphic incompatibility in Pontederia subovata (Pontederiaceae): An aquatic macrophyte from lowland South America. International Journal of Plant Sciences 174:47–56. doi:10.1086/668229 (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. & Hough, J. (2013). Sexual dimorphism in flowering plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 64:67–82. doi:10.1093/jxb/ers308 (pdf)
  5. Hough J, Immler S, Barrett SCH, & Otto SP. (2013). Evolutionarily stable sex ratios and mutation load. Evolution 67: 1915–1925. doi:10.1111/evo.12066 (pdf)
  6. Field, D.L., Pickup, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). Ecological context and metapopulation dynamics affect sex-ratio variation among dioecious plant populationsAnnals of Botany 111: 917–923. doi:10.1093/aob/mct040 (pdf)
  7. Pickup, M. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). The influence of demography and local mating environment on sex ratios in a wind-pollinated dioecious plant. Ecology and Evolution 3: 629–639. doi:10.1002/ece3.465 (pdf)
  8. Kissling, J & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). Variation and evolution of herkogamy in Exochaenium (Gentianaceae): implications for the evolution of distyly. Annals of Botany 112: 95-102. doi:10.1093/aob/mct097 (pdf)
  9. Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). The evolution of plant reproductive systems: how often are transitions irreversible? Proceedings of the Royal Society Ser. B. 280: no. 1765 20130913 doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0913 (pdf)
  10. Huang, S.-Q., Xiong, Y.-Z. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). Experimental evidence of insect pollination in Juncaceae, a primarily wind-pollinated familyInternational Journal of Plant Sciences 174:1219–1228. doi:10.1086/673247 (pdf)
  11. Kissling, J & Barrett, S.C.H. (2013). Diplostigmaty in plants: a novel mechanism that provides reproductive assurance. Biological Letters 9: 20130495 doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0495 (pdf)
  12. Colautti, R.I. & Barrett S.C.H. (2013). Rapid adaptation to climate facilitates range expansion of an invasive plant. Science 342:364-366. doi:10.1126/science.1242121 (pdf)



  1.  Barrett, S.C.H. (2014). Evolution of mating systems: outcrossing versus selfing. In: The Princeton Guide to Evolution (Ed. J. Losos) Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp. 356-362. (pdf)
  2. Yakimowski, S.B., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2014). Variation and evolution of sex ratios at the northern range limit of a sexually polymorphic plant. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27:1454-1466. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12322 (pdf)
  3. Hough J., Hollister J.D., Wang W., Barrett S.C.H., & Wright S.I. (2014). Genetic degeneration of old and young Y chromosomes in the flowering plant Rumex hastatulusProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:7713-7718. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319227111 (pdf)
  4. Yakimowski, S.B., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2014). Clonal genetic structure and diversity in populations of an aquatic plant with combined versus separate sexes. Molecular Ecology23: 2914-2928. doi: 10.1111/mec.12791 (pdf)
  5. Zhang, Z.Q., Zhu, X.F., Sun, H., Yang, Y.P., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2014). Size-dependent gender modification in Lilium apertum (Liliaceae): does this species exhibit gender diphasy? Annals of Botany114:441-453. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcu140 (pdf)
  6. Percy, D.M., Argus, G.W., Cronk, Q.C., Fazekas, A.J., Kesanakurti, P.R., Burgess, K.S., Husband B.C., Newmaster S.G., Barrett S.C.H., & Graham, S.W. (2014). Understanding the spectacular failure of DNA barcoding in willows (Salix): Does this result from a trans‐specific selective sweep?. Molecular Ecology23: 4737-4756. doi: 10.1111/mec.12837 (pdf)
  7. Barrett, S.C.H., Arunkumar, R., & Wright, S.I. (2014). The demography and population genomics of evolutionary transitions to self-fertilization in plants.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369 doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0344 (pdf)
  8. Hough J, Agren A., Barrett S.C.H., & Wright S.I. (2014). Chromosomal distribution of cyto-nuclear genes in a dioecious plant with sex chromosomes. Genome Biology and Evolution 206: 1503–1512. doi:10.1093/gbe/evu197 (pdf)
  9. Leme da Cunha, N., Fischer, E., Lorenz-Lemke, A.P., & Barrett, S.C.H. (2014). Floral variation and environmental heterogeneity in a tristylous clonal aquatic of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil. Annals of Botany114: 1637-1649. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcu181 (pdf



  1. Arunkumar, R., Ness R.W., Wright S.I., Barrett S.C.H. (2014). The evolution of selfing is accompanied by reduced efficacy of selection and purging of deleterious mutations. Genetics 199: 817-829. doi: 10.1534/genetics.114.172809 (pdf)
  2.  Barrett, S.C.H. (2014). Foundations of invasion genetics: The Baker and Stebbins legacy. Molecular Ecology24: 1927-1941. doi:10.1111/mec.13014. (pdf)
  3. Ferrero, V., Barrett, S.C.H., Castro, S., Caldeirinha, P., Navarro, L., Loureiro, J., & Rodríguez‐Echeverría, S. (2015). Invasion genetics of the Bermuda buttercup (Oxalis pes‐caprae): complex intercontinental patterns of genetic diversity, polyploidy and heterostyly characterize both native and introduced populations. Molecular Ecology 24: 1927–1941. doi: 10.1111/mec.13056 (pdf)
  4. Barrett, S.C.H. (2015). Proceedings B: moving forward to meet new challenges. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences282(1799): 20142834. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.2834 (pdf)
  5. Zhou, W., Barrett, S.C.H., Wang, H. and Li, D.-Z. (2015), Reciprocal herkogamy promotes disassortative mating in a distylous species with intramorph compatibility. New Phytologist. 206: 1503–1512. doi: 10.1111/nph.13326 (pdf)
  6. Barrett, S.C.H. (2015). The evolution of plant reproductive ecology in China. Journal of Plant Ecology, 8(2): 101-108. doi:10.1093/jpe/rtv028 (pdf)
  7. Johnson, M.T., Campbell, S.A. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2015). Coevolution between plant reproductive systems and plant defenses against parasites. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics46: 191-213. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054215 Abstract (pdf)
  8. Barrett, S.C.H. (2015). Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: 8859-8866. doi:10.1073/pnas.1501712112 (pdf)
  9. Hu, Y., Barrett, S.C.H., Zhang D-Y. & Liao, W-J. (2015). Experimental analysis of mating patterns in a clonal plant reveals contrasting modes of self-pollination. Ecology and Evolution 5: 5423-5431. (pdf)



  1. Balogh, C.M., Barrett, S.C.H. (2016). Stochastic processes during invasion: the influence of population size on style-morph frequency variation in Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife). International Journal of Plant Sciences 177: 409-418. doi: 10.1086/686023 (pdf)
  2. Arunkumar, R., Maddison, T.I., Barrett, S.C.H., Wright, S.I. (2016). Recent mating system evolution in Eichhornia is accompanied by cis-regulatory divergence. New Phytologist 211: 697-707. doi: 10.1111/nph.13918 (pdf)
  3. Cruzan, M.B., Barrett S.C.H. (2016). Postpollination discrimination of self and outcross pollen covaries with the mating system of a self-compatible flowering plant. American Journal of Botany 103: 568-576. doi:10.3732/ajb.1500139 (pdf)
  4. Yin, G., Barrett, S.C.H., Luo, Y-B., Bai, W.-N. (2016). Seasonal variation in the mating system of a selfing annual with large floral displays. Annals of Botany 117: 391-400. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcv186 (pdf)
  5. Costa, J., Castro, S., Loureiro, J., Barrett, S.C.H. (2016). Variation in style morph frequencies in tristylous Lythrum salicaria in the Iberian Peninsula: the role of geographic and demographic factors. Annals of Botany 117: 391-400. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcv173 (pdf)
  6. Teitel, Z., Pickup, M., Field, D., Barrett S.C.H. (2016). The dynamics of resource allocation and costs of reproduction in a sexually dimorphic, wind-pollinated, dioecious plant. Plant Biology 18: 98-103. doi: 10.1111/plb.12336 (pdf)
  7. Eckert C.G., Dorken, M.E., Barrett, S.C.H., (2016). Ecological and evolutionary consequences of sexual and clonal reproduction in aquatic plants. Aquatic Botany 135: 46-61. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.03.006 (pdf)
  8. Anderson, B., Pauw, A., Cole, W.W., Barrett S.C.H. (2016). Pollination, mating and reproductive fitness in a plant population with bimodal floral-tube length. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 29:1631-1642. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12899 (pdf)
  9. Yakimowski S.B., Barrett, S.C.H. (2016). The role of hybridization in the evolution of sexual system diversity in a clonal, aquatic plant. Evolution 70: 1200-1211. doi: 10.1111/evo.12941 (pdf)
  10. Zhou W., Li, H., Wu, Z., Barrett, S.C.H., Li, D.-Z., Wang, H. (2016). Characterzaition of 24 microsatellite markers in Primula chungensis (Primulaceae), a distylous-homostylous species, using MiSeq sequencing. Plant Diversity 38: 110-113. doi: 10.1016/j.pld.2015.12.002 (pdf)
  11. Barrett, S.C.H. (2016). Editorial. Proceeding B 2015: the year in review. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B. 283: 20152812. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.2812 (pdf)
  12. Sousa, D.J.L Barrett, S.C.H., Cunha, N.L., & Giulietti-Harley, A.N. (2016). Genus Eichhornia Kunth (Pontederiaceae) 780. Rapid Color Guides, Field Museum, Chicago Illinois, USA.
  13. Barrett, S.C.H. (2016). Foundations of invasion genetics: The Bakers and Stebbins legacy. In: Invasion Genetics: The Baker and Stebbins Legacy eds. S.C.H. Barrett, R.I. Colautti, K.M. Dlugosch, L.H. Rieseberg. John Wiley, London. pp. 1-18.
  14. Barrett S.C.H., Crowson D. (2016) Mating systems in flowering plants. In: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology Vol. 2 ed. R.M. Klimam. Academic Press, Oxford pp. 473-479. (pdf)
  15. Barrett, S.C.H., Colautti, R.I., Dlugosch, K.M., Rieseberg, L.H. (Editors) (2016). Invasion Genetics: The Baker and Stebbins Legacy. John Wiley, London. 



  1. Barrett S.C.H. (2017). Proceedings B 2016: the year in review. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 284: 20162633. (pdf)
  2. Zhu, B-R., Barrett S.C.H., Zhang D-Y, Liao W-J. (2017). Invasion genetics of Senecio vulgaris: loss of genetic diversity characterizes the invasion of a selfing annual, despite multiple introductions. Biological Invasions 19: 255-267. (pdf)
  3. Costa J., Castro, S., Loureiro J., Barrett S.C.H. (2017). Experimental insights on the function of ancillary pollen and stigma polymorphisms in plants with heteromorphic incompatibility. Evolution 71: 121-134. (pdf)
  4. Arunkumar R., Wang W., Wright S.I., Barrett SCH. (2017). The genetic architecture of tristyly and its breakdown to self-fertilization. Molecular Ecology 26: 752-765. (pdf)
  5. Ferrero V., Barrett S.C.H., Rojas D., Arroyo J., Navarro L. (2017). Associations between sex-organ deployment and morph bias in related species heterostylous taxa with different stylar polymorphisms. American Journal of Botany 104: 50-61. (pdf)
  6. Zhou, W., Barrett S.C.H., Li H-D., Wu Z-K., Wang X-J., Wang H., Li D-Z. (2017). Phylogeographic insights on the evolutionary breakdown of heterostyly. New Phytologist 214: 1368-1380. (pdf)
  7. Costa J., Castro, S., Loureiro J., Barrett S.C.H. (2017). Experimental insights on Darwin’s cross-promotion hypothesis in tristylous purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). American Journal of Botany 104: 616-626. (pdf)
  8. Crowson D., Barrett S.C.H., Wright S.I. (2017). Purifying and positive selection influence patterns of gene loss and gene expression in the evolution of a plant sex chromosome system. Molecular Biology and Evolution 34: 1140-1154. (pdf)
  9. Barrett S.C.H., Harder L.D. (2017). The ecology of plant mating and its evolutionary consequences in seed plants. Annual Reviews of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 48: 135-157. (pdf)
  10. Hough J., Wang W., Barrett S.C.H., Wright S.I. (2017). Hill-Robertson interference reduces genetic diversity on a young plant Y-chromosome. Genetics 201: 685-695. (pdf)
  11. Yuan S., Barrett S.C.H., Tingting D., Qian X., Shi M., Zhang D-X. (2017). Ecological correlates and genetic consequences of evolutionary transitions from distyly to homostyly. Annals of Botany 120: 775-789. (pdf)
  12. Beaudry F, Barrett S.C.H., Wright S.I. (2017). Genomic loss and silencing on the Y-chromosomes of RumexGenome Biology and Evolution 9: 3345-3355. (pdf)



  1. Balogh C.M. & Barrett S.C.H. (2018). The influence of floral morph ratios and low plant density on mating and fertility in a tristylous colonizing species. Botany 96: 533-545. (pdf)
  2. Balogh C.M. & Barrett S.C.H. (2018). Genetic and environmental influences on partial self-incompatibility in Lythrum salicaria (Lythraceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 423-435. (pdf)
  3. Rivkin L.R., Barrett S.C.H. & Johnson M.T.J. (2018). The effects of plant sexual system and latitude on resistance to herbivores. American Journal of Botany 105: 1-9. (pdf)
  4. Sandler G., Beaudry F.E.G., Barrett S.C.H. & Wright S.I. (2018). The effects of haploid selection on Y chromosome evolution in two closely related dioecious plants. Evolution Letters 2: 368-377. (pdf)
  5. Timerman, D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2018). Divergent selection on the biomechanical properties of stamens under wind and insect pollination. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285: 20182251. (pdf)
  6. Barrett S.C.H. (2018). Proceedings B 2018: the year in review. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 285: 20182590. (pdf)



  1. Yuan, S., Barrett, S.C.H., Li, C., Li, X., Xie, K. & Zhang, D. (2019). Genetics of distyly and homostyly in a self-compatible PrimulaHeredity 122: 110-119. (pdf)
  2. Timerman, D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2019). The spatial ecology of sex ratios in a dioecious plant: relations between ramet and genet sex ratios. Journal of Ecology 107: 1804-1816. (pdf)
  3. Wang, X., Zhong, L., Wu, Z., Sun, H., Wang, H., Li, D., Barrett, S.C.H. & Zhou, W. (2019). Characterization of 30 microsatellite markers in distylous Primula sinolisteri (Primulaceae) using HiSeq sequencing. Applications in Plant Sciences 7: e1208. (pdf)
  4. Li, L., Barrett, S.C.H., Song, Z. & Chen, J. (2019). Sex-specific plasticity of reproductive allocation in response to water depth in a clonal, dioecious macrophyte. American Journal of Botany 106: 42-50. (pdf)
  5. Kohn, D.D., Ruhsam, M., Hulme, P.E., Barrett, S.C.H. & Hollingsworth, P.M. (2019). Paternity analysis reveals constraints on hybridization potential between native and introduces bluebells (Hyacinthoides). Conservation Genetics 20: 571-584. (pdf)
  6. Cunha, N.L. de & Barrett, S.C.H. (2019). Architectural constraints, male fertility variation and biased floral morph ratios in tristylous populations. Heredity 123: 694-706. (pdf)
  7. Theron, G.L., de Waal, C., Barrett, S.C.H. & Anderson, B. (2019). Geographical variation of reproductive traits and competition for pollinators in a bird-pollinated plant. Ecology and Evolution 9: 10122-10134. (pdf)
  8. Costa, J., Torices, R. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2019). Evolutionary history of the buildup and breakdown of the heterostylous syndrome in Plumbaginaceae. New Phytologist 224: 1278-1289. (pdf)
  9. Fan, Y.-L., Barrett, S.C.H., Yang, J.-Q., Zhao, J.-L., Xia, Y.-M. & Li, Q.-J. (2019). Water mediates fertilization in a terrestrial flowering plant. New Phytologist 224: 1133-1141. (pdf)
  10. Zhong, L., Barrett, S.C.H., Wang, X.-J., Wu, Z.-K., Sun, H.-Y., Li, D.-Z., Wang, H. & Zhou, W. (2019). Phylogenomic analysis reveals multiple evolutionary origins of selfing from outcrossing in a lineage of heterostylous plants. New Phytologist 224: 1290-1303. (pdf)
  11. Timerman, D. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2019). Comparative analysis of pollen release biomechanics in Thalictrum: implications for evolutionary transitions between animal and wind pollination. New Phytologist 224: 1121-1132. (pdf)
  12. Puixeu, G., Pickup, M., Field, D.L. & Barrett, S.C.H. (2019). Variation in sexual dimorphism in a wind-pollinated plant: the influence of geographical context and life-cycle dynamics. New Phytologist 224: 1108-1120. (pdf)
  13. Barrett S.C.H. (2019). ‘A most complex marriage arrangement’: recent advances on heterostyly and unresolved questions. New Phytologist 224: 1051-1067. (pdf)
  14. Beaudry, F., Barrett S.C.H. & Wright, S.I. (2019). Ancestral and neo-sex chromosomes contribute to population divergence in a dioecious plant. Evolution 74: 256-269. (pdf)



  1. Barrett S.C.H. (2020). Proceedings B 2019: the year in review. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 287: 20192626. (pdf)
  2. Huang, Q., Wang W., Barrett, S.C.H. & Ren, M. (2020). Plasticity in selective embryo abortion may limit the mating costs of geitonogamy in self-compatible plants: a hypothesis. American Journal of Botany 107: 390-393. (pdf)
  3. Timerman, D. & Barrett S.C.H. (2020). Influence of local density and sex ratio on pollination in an ambophilous flowering plant. American Journal of Botany 107: 587-598. (pdf)
  4. Ferrero, V., Navarro, L., Castro, S., Loureiro, J., Sánchez, J.M., Carvallo, G.O. & Barrett S.C.H. (2020). Global patterns of reproductive and cytotype diversity in an invasive clonal plant. Biological Invasions 22: 1691-1703. (pdf)
  5. Huang, Q., Wang, W., Barrett, S.C.H. & Ren M. (2020). Plasticity in selective embryo abortion may limit the mating costs of geitonogamy in self‐compatible plants: a hypothesis. American Journal of Botany 107: 390-393. (pdf)
  6. Beaudry, F.E.G., Rifkin, J.L., Barrett, S.C.H. & Wright S.I. (2020). Evolutionary genomics of plant gametophytic selection. Plant Communications 1: 100115. (pdf)
  7. Cao, H.-P., He, Y.-T., Zhong, L., Wang, X.-J., Barrett, S.C.H., Wang, H., Li, D.-Z. & Zhou, W. (2020). Characterization of 30 microsatellite markers for distylous Primula denticulata (Primulaceae) using HiSeq sequencing. Genes & Genetic Systems 95: 1-5. (pdf)



  1. Barrett S.C.H. (2021). Proceedings B 2020: the year in review. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 288: 20202887. (pdf)
  2. Wang, X.-J., Barrett, S.C.H., Zhong, L., Wu, Z.-K., Li, D.-Z., Wang, H. & Zhou, W. (2021). The genomic selfing syndrome accompanies the evolutionary breakdown of heterostyly. Molecular Biology and Evolution 38: 168-180. (pdf)
  3. Wang, H., Barrett, S.C.H., Li, X.-Y., Niu, Y., Duan, Y.-W., Zhang, Z.-Q. & Li, Q.-J. (2021). Sexual conflict in protandrous flowers and the evolution of gynodioecy. Evolution 75: 278-293. (pdf)
  4. Barrett S.C.H. (2021). Plant sex: best to be bisexual when mates are scarce. Current Biology 31: R298-R300. (pdf)
  5. Rifkin, J.L., Beaudry, F.E.G., Humphries, Z., Choudhury, B.I., Barrett S.C.H. & Wright, S.I. (2021). Widespread recombination suppression facilitates plant sex chromosome evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution 38: 1018-1030. (pdf)
  6. Timerman D. & Barrett S.C.H. (2021). The biomechanics of pollen release: new perspectives on the evolution of wind pollination in angiosperms. Biological Reviews 76:2146-2163. (pdf)
  7. Barrett S.C.H. (2021). Heteranthery. Current Biology 31: R774-R776. (pdf)
  8. Ma, Y., Barrett, S.C.H., Wang, F.-Y., Deng, J.-C. & Bai, W.-N. (2021). Do annual and perennial populations of an insect-pollinated plant species differ in mating system? Annals of Botany 127: 853-864. (pdf
  9. Yu, Q., Barrett, S.C.H., Wang, X.-J., Zhong, L., Wang, H., Li, D.-Z. & Zhou, W. (2021). Sexual dimorphism, temporal niche differentiation, and evidence for the Jack Sprat effect in an annual dioecious plant Journal of Systematics and Evolution in press. (pdf
  10. Wu, Y., Barrett, S.C.H., Duan, X., Zhang, J., Cha, Y., Tu, C. & Li, Q. (2021). Herbivore-mediated selection on floral display covaries nonlinearly with plant-antagonistic interaction intensity among primrose populations. Frontiers in Plant Science 12:727957. (pdf)